While most group health plans contain an exclusion for medical and investigational procedures, the scope and the pace at which medical procedures and treatments are tested in the 21st century makes this an extremely difficult standard to apply. There is no bright-line test, experts frequently disagree as to when the line has been crossed, and in some instances the stakes are literally life and death. This article discusses some potential pitfalls for plan administrators and offers suggestions on how to address this difficult aspect of group health care administration. (Benefits Law Journal)